Lorentz3 kirjoitti:Eiköhän ne ole assimiloitu siihen malliin kuten kuuluukin? Näin se tiede ja maapallon ymmärtäminen etenee.
Tätä(kään) "tutkimusta" et sitten ole edes lukenut.
Lainaus : The "albedo" or reflectivity process is simple, scientists say, but difficult to measure on a broad scale. The reflectivity of ice and snow is obviously much greater than that of darker, unfrozen ground, or open sea water. But researchers also have discovered that variations in the snow and ice result in different albedo impacts.
Ehkä ei kuitenkaan ihan niin simppeliä, kuin tuo lause antaa olettaa.
Tietoa albedosta löytyy runsaasti. Tämä "tutkimus" ei ilmeisesti ole tuota tietoa tarvinnut.
A ratio of the radiation reflected by a surface to that incident on it.
Clouds are the chief cause of variations in the Earth’s albedo since clouds have highly varying albedo, dependent upon thickness and composition. Old snow is about 55% (0.55), new snow around 80% (0.8 ). water surfaces vary from very low about 5% (0.05) at high sun elevation to _at least 70%(0.70)_ at low sun angles(=pohjoisnapa kesällä).http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/data-hold ... bedo.shtml
NASA – Arctic
“So in addition to changing sea ice, we can kind of guess that something must be happening in the atmosphere over the Arctic, too.” Clouds are bright, too, and an increase in clouds could cancel out the impact of melting snow and ice on polar albedo.”http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Featur ... ector2.php
“Although sea ice and snow cover had noticeably declined in the Arctic from 2000 to 2004, there had been no detectable change in the albedo measured at the top of the atmosphere: the proportion of light the Arctic reflected hadn’t changed. In other words, the ice albedo feedback that most climate models predict will ultimately amplify global warming apparently hadn’t yet kicked in.”
“According to the MODIS observations, cloud fraction had increased at a rate of 0.65 percent per year between 2000 and 2004. If the trend continues, it will amount to a relative increase of about 6.5 percent per decade. At least during this short time period, says Kato, increased cloudiness in the Arctic appears to have offset the expected decline in albedo from melting sea ice and snow.”
Eli ei muutosta albedossa.http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Featur ... ector4.php
“We conclude that decreasing concentrations of sulphate aerosols and increasing concentrations of black carbon have substantially contributed to rapid Arctic warming during the past three decades.”http://pubs.giss.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/abstr ... d=sh02500l
“Plausible estimates for the effect of soot on snow and ice albedos (1.5% in the Arctic and 3% in Northern Hemisphere land areas) yield a climate forcing of +0.3 W/m2 in the Northern Hemisphere. The “efficacy” of this forcing is ~2, i.e., for a given forcing it is twice as effective as CO2 in altering global surface air temperature.”http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC327163/
Caltech/New Jersey Institute of Technology calculated that Earth’s albedo had increased from 2001. (Science, May 28, 2005)
Tällaiset "tutkimukset" eivät edesauta tieteen ja maapallon ymmärtämistä.